10 Greatest Archaeological Discoveries of 2021

VARIOUS archaeological discoveries continue to emerge and reveal a lot of historical value and knowledge about previous lives. Throughout the year 2021 there are ten archaeological discoveries that are considered the largest and most important. Here's the order;

1. Rare Mosaic of the Trojan War in England

Archaeologists discovered a rare mosaic depicting scenes from Homer's Iliad while excavating a Roman villa complex in September 2021. Archaeologists from the University of Leicester School of Archeology and Ancient History have found the remains of an 11 x 7 meter mosaic depicting the battle of the legendary hero Achilles of the Iliad and with the Trojan Prince Hector.

The artwork forms the dining room floor in a large villa building from the 3rd and 4th centuries in the late Roman period. A geophysical study and archaeological evaluation identified several supporting structures, such as a granary, a bathhouse, a circular structure from a series of dividing moats.

2. Roman Ceremonial Chariot near the Roman City of Pompeii

Archaeologists from the Archaeological Park of Pompeii and the Prosecutor's Office Torre Annunziata discovered the intact Roman Ceremonial Chariot during excavations near the Roman City of Pompeii. Excavations were carried out on volcanic material as deep as 6 meters. A large ceremonial chariot called the Pilentum was found in a two-story portico, with all four wheels still intact, along with components of iron, bronze and tin decorations, the remains of mineral wood. Traces of organic materials such as string and floral decorations were also found.

3. Bronze Age 3D Cartographic Map of Europe

A stone slab dating from the Early Bronze Age around 2150-1600 BC is the oldest map in Europe. A multi-national team of researchers discovered that the slab contains many elements in prehistoric maps - including repetitive motifs combined with lines to give the map layout. Examination of the engraved surface revealed that the slab's topography was intentionally 3D shaped to represent the Odet River valley. While some lines appear to describe the river network. This work shows that the region represented on the slab corresponds to an area of ​​approximately 30 x 21 km, along the course of the Odet River. The central motif, interpreted as a cage symbol, indicates that there are three river springs (Odet, Isole, and Stêr Laër).

4. Norse Settlements in America

An international research team discovered Norse settlers in America as early as 1021 AD that served as exploration bases and winter camps. The study, published in the journal Nature, focused on the Norse L'Anse aux Meadows site in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The researchers studied woodcuts from settlers that showed clear evidence of cutting and slicing with metal slats (a material not produced by the local population). original). The designation of 1021 AD was precisely determined based on a major solar storm occurring in 992 AD that produced a different radiocarbon signal in the tree rings from the following year.

5. Ancient Egypt's Lost City of Gold

Archaeologists led by Dr Zahi Hawass discovered the 3500 year old Ancient Egyptian city near Luxor in Egypt, while excavating the area between the Rameses III temple in Medinet Habu and the Amenhotep III temple in Memnon in search of the Tutankhamun Mortuary Temple. The city dates from the period of Amenhotep III (known as Amenhotep the Great – the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty). This estimate is based on the discovery of a large number of archaeological objects, such as rings, scarabs, colored pottery vessels, and mud bricks bearing the Cartouche seal of King Amenhotep III.

6. Footprints and Footprints in Stone in Tibet

The oldest examples of immovable art consisting of carefully enshrined hands and footprints have been found in Tibet. A multi-national research team from Bournemouth University and Guangzhou University found five fingerprints and five footprints in Quesang, Tibetan Plateau, dating from 169,000-226,000 years ago, in the middle of the Ice Age. decay of uranium found in travertine. The technique provides evidence for the earliest hominin occupation of the Tibetan Plateau.

7. The Teotihuacan Mayan Neighborhood in Tikal

Archaeologists surveying the Mayan city of Tikal uncovered a previously unknown environment using light-detecting software. As part of a study by the Pacunam Lidar Initiative, a consortium of researchers used Lidar in areas considered natural hills. However, the survey revealed a large, previously unknown environment designed to look like structures at Teotihuacan, the largest and most powerful of the ancient American cities. . Archaeologists have known for decades that the two cities were related and often traded for centuries before Teotihuacan conquered Tikal around AD 378. This is evidence that the Mayan elite lived in Teotihuacan, exchanging culture and burial rituals between the two cities. But the findings and excavations of the research consortium's lidar prove that Teotihuacan did more than just trade, and culturally influenced the small town of Tikal before conquering it.

8. America's Oldest Human Footprints

Archaeologists conducting research in White Sands National Park in New Mexico have identified the oldest human footprints in America. The findings provide the earliest unequivocal evidence of human activity in the Americas from more than 23,000 years ago. That is the period during the peak of the last glacial cycle, known as the Last Glacial Maximum. The team used radiocarbon dating of the seed layers above and below the footprints to determine their age. Finally known to human presence at the site that lasted for two millennia and the oldest traces are 23,000 years old.

9. Discovery of the History of Human Symbols

A discovery by archaeologists from the Hebrew University and the University of Haifa with France's Le Center National de la Recherche Scientifique team, has uncovered evidence of the earliest known use of symbols. The symbols were found on a bone fragment in the Ramle region of central Israel and are believed to be about 120,000 years old. Amazingly the fragment remained largely intact and the researchers were able to detect six similar scratches on one side of the bone. The evidence led them to believe they had something of a symbolic or spiritual significance.

10. The 4,400-year-old Snake Stick

Archaeologists from the University of Turku, the Finnish Heritage Agency and researchers from the University of Helsinki found a stone age wooden “stick” shaped like a snake. The discovery was made at the prehistoric site of Jarvensuo 1, an ancient wetland environment on the shores of Lake Rautajarvi in ​​southwest Finland. Jarvensuo 1 was discovered by accident during the 1950s by diggers and excavations have been ongoing since 2019. Archaeologists note that this find is unlike any other wooden artifact from Neolithic Northern Europe. Although snakes are sometimes depicted in contemporary rock art pictographs from the Pit-Comb Ware Culture (also called the Ceramic Comb Culture).

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