On the Sun on Thursday, October 28, there was a flare of maximum class X1.0. This was reported by the Laboratory of X-ray Astronomy of the Sun at the Physical Institute of the Academy of Sciences. Scientists have received the first experimental confirmation of the fusion processes of the CNO cycle in the Sun The process of the Sun's strong X-ray emission began at 18:17 Moscow time and lasted 31 minutes. A total of 11 medium to strong flares occurred on the Sun on Thursday. The index of flare activity on the star was raised by scientists to an orange level.
Earlier, on September 13, it was reported that U.S. and European scientists identified two previously unknown superbursts on the Sun that occurred in 7176 and 5259 B.C. They determined that the carbon isotope 14C (measuring the concentration of radioactive carbon) was about 2% higher than all previously reported 14C peaks. Prior to this, on August 28, the Space Weather Prediction Center of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reported that scientists recorded a series of flares on the Sun for the third day in a row.
Thus, over 24 hours, scientists noted seven flares of class C. The last maximum class X flare occurred on July 3, it was the largest since 2017. The event lasted about 16 minutes, while other types of flares on the Sun can last up to several hours. A flare is an ejection of coronal matter from the surface of a star. Depending on the location and direction of the ejection, the plasma cloud could cover the Earth, causing a magnetic storm in our planet's magnetosphere, or pass by.