The name of the country Egypt appeared thanks to the ancient Greeks, who so called the northern part of the Nile Valley and the nearby oases of the Libyan desert. The Egyptians called their country Qemt, which means "black land" that is fertile, and the area of the desert they called Chezer, "red land" respectively unfit for life. Some scholars believe that the name Egypt comes from the sacred name of the capital of the ancient state of Memphis - previously the city was called Gacapt ("the sanctuary of the deity Ptah").
The latest scientific findings tell us that all mankind originated in Africa: it was there that the remains of the most ancient man have been found. According to ancient historical documents, we know that in Ethiopia (Formerly Nubia - where the Egyptians are said to have come from) kingdoms existed already 300 years before the appearance of the first Pharaoh in Egypt. "They also say that the Egyptians are colonists sent by the Ethiopians, and that Osiris was the head of this colony..." - so testified Diodorus of Sicily, the Greek historian.
The Egyptian high priest Manephon recorded that "there are two great Ethiopian peoples, one the Sindians (Indians) and the other the Egyptians." Also the sacred Egyptian scriptures state, "Our people were born at the foot of the Mun Mountains at the source of the Nile." It is difficult to determine the age of this people and to establish exactly when the Egyptians settled on their land.
A French expedition led by geographers M. Griaule and J. Deterlen discovered the Dogon tribe. The Dogon lived in the bend of the Niger River. A small tribe in its development slightly lagged behind modern civilization, but they possessed a unique knowledge that was transmitted orally or in the form of drawings from generation to generation. This knowledge amazed the whole world. Allegedly "Dark People" knew about the structure of the universe.
Dogons knew that the Earth rotates "in a great circle", and that besides our planet in the solar system, there are other planets, and among them - Jupiter and Saturn. Moreover, Saturn in the drawings of the Dogon depicted with two concentric rings, and Jupiter - in the form of a large ring, around which were placed four small. Scientists were only able to detect Jupiter's four satellites and closed rings around Saturn with powerful telescopes. The Dogons also knew of the existence of Sirius, only in their language it was called Sigitolo. Surprisingly, even the young children of the tribe knew that it was the brightest star in our sky and that it was in the constellation of the Great Hound. We didn't learn about it until the 1970s. But where did the Dogons get such accurate information about the structure of the universe?
According to the English scientist Robert Temple, in the territory of the modern Sahara desert once existed a highly developed civilization of the Garamantes. Herodotus also mentioned this tribe in his works. The great kingdom of the Haramans stretched from the Atlas Mountains to the borders of Egypt. Unique drawings of this extinct tribe have been preserved in the Tassili Mountains. Today it is difficult to say what happened to these people and the reason for the disappearance of civilization, as no reliable information has been preserved. But scientists believe that some of the Haramans mingled with the peoples of North and West Africa. And the direct descendants of the Haramans are most likely the Tuaregs.
The high flowering of the Haramante culture is evidenced by the many kilometers of tunnels under the Sahara Desert, from Sebha in Libya to the oasis of Ghat near the Algerian border. These tunnels represent a huge underground water supply system. Scientists estimate that the total length of the system is about 1600 km. The tunnels were cut into the rock more than five millennia ago, which coincides approximately with the date of the unified state of Egypt.
It remains incomprehensible how ancient people managed to create such a structure without technology, without lighting, ventilation, special tools and other things. Approximately the same surprise cause the grandiose pyramids, on the construction of which took many tons of building material.
Probably, the Egyptians borrowed much of their culture and scientific knowledge from the Haramans. Unfortunately, scientists cannot give positive answers to these questions yet. Today we can only speculate and make hypotheses.