Kidney stones

Kidney stones 

are mineral and salt deposits that grow inside your kidneys.


Kidney stones can be caused by a variety of factors, including diet, excess body weight, certain medical conditions, and certain supplements and drugs. From your kidneys to your bladder, kidney stones can harm any component of your urinary tract. When urine becomes concentrated, minerals crystallise and bind together, resulting in stones.

Kidney stones can be quite painful to pass, but if caught early enough, they usually do not cause permanent damage. To clear a kidney stone, you may only need to take pain medication and drink plenty of water, depending on your circumstances. Surgery may be required in some cases, such as when stones become trapped in the urinary tract, are connected with a urinary infection, or create problems.

If you're at an elevated risk of recurrent kidney stones, your doctor may offer preventive treatment to lower your risk.


If you're at an elevated risk of recurrent kidney stones, your doctor may offer preventive treatment to lower your risk.


Illustration of kidney stones as a symptom

Stones in the kidneys

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A kidney stone normally does not produce symptoms until it travels about inside your kidney or travels into your ureters, which are the tubes that link your kidneys and bladder. If it becomes lodged in the ureters, it can obstruct urine flow and cause the kidney to enlarge and the ureter to spasm, both of which can be quite painful. You may experience the following indications and symptoms at that time:


Pain in the side and back, just below the ribs, is severe and intense.

Pain in the lower abdomen and groyne that radiates

Waves of pain with varying levels of severity

While urinating, you may experience pain or a burning sensation.

Other signs and symptoms to look out for include:


Urine can be pink, crimson, or brown in colour.

Urine that is cloudy or smells bad

Urinating frequently or in little amounts, or urinating more frequently than normal

Vomiting and nausea

If you have a fever and chills, you may have an infection.

As a kidney stone passes through your urinary tract, the pain it causes may alter — for example, migrating to a new spot or rising in intensity.


When should you see a doctor?

If you have any concerns about your signs and symptoms, make an appointment with your doctor.


If you have any of the following symptoms, seek medical help right once.


You can't sit still or find a comfortable position because of the pain.

Nausea and vomiting accompany the pain.

Fever and chills accompany the pain.

Urine with blood in it

Urinary incontinence (difficulty passing urine)


Reasons for this

Although various variables may increase your risk of kidney stones, there is rarely a single cause.


Kidney stones grow when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances than the fluid in your urine can dilute, such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid. At the same time, your urine may be deficient in chemicals that prevent crystals from sticking together, allowing kidney stones to form.


Kidney stones come in several forms.

Knowing what type of kidney stone you have will help you figure out what caused it and how to limit your chances of having more. If you pass a kidney stone, save it as much as you can so you may bring it to your doctor for analysis.


Kidney stones come in a variety of shapes and sizes.


Calcium oxalate stones. Calcium stones, mainly in the form of calcium oxalate, make up the majority of kidney stones. Oxalate is a chemical produced by your liver on a daily basis or absorbed through your diet. The oxalate content of certain fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, is high.


Calcium and oxalate concentrations in urine can be increased by dietary variables, high vitamin D doses, intestinal bypass surgery, and a variety of metabolic diseases.


Calcium phosphate stones are another type of calcium stone. Metabolic disorders, such as renal tubular acidosis, are more likely to cause this form of stone. It's also possible that certain migraine or seizure drugs, such as topiramate, are linked to it (Topamax, Trokendi XR, Qudexy XR).


Struvite is a kind of struvite. A urinary tract infection causes struvite stones to develop. These stones can develop quickly and become quite large, often without causing any symptoms or warning.

Stones made up of uric acid. People with diabetes or metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop uric acid stones if they lose too much fluid due to chronic diarrhoea or malabsorption, eat a high-protein diet, or have diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Uric acid stones can also be caused by certain hereditary causes.

Stones made of cystine. These stones arise in persons who have cystinuria, a hereditary condition in which the kidneys discharge too much of a certain amino acid.

Factors that are at risk

Kidney stones can be caused by a number of factors, including:


Personal or family history You're more likely to get kidney stones if someone in your family has had them. You're more likely to acquire another kidney stone if you've already had one or more.

Dehydration is a common ailment. Kidney stones can be increased if you don't drink enough water each day. People who live in hot, dry areas or who sweat a lot may be more vulnerable than others.

Certain dietary regimens. A high-protein, sodium (salt), and sugar diet may increase your risk of certain forms of kidney stones. This is particularly true if you eat a high-sodium diet. Too much salt in your diet increases the quantity of calcium your kidneys must filter, increasing your risk of kidney stones dramatically.

Obesity is a problem. An increased incidence of kidney stones has been associated to a high body mass index (BMI), a large waist circumference, and weight gain.

Digestive illnesses and surgery are two topics that come up frequently. Changes in the digestive process such as gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel illness, or chronic diarrhoea might disrupt calcium and water absorption, increasing the amount of stone-forming chemicals in your urine.

Other medical problems that can raise your risk of kidney stones include renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, and recurrent urinary tract infections.

Vitamin C, nutritional supplements, laxatives (when used excessively), calcium-based antacids, and certain migraine or depression drugs can all raise your risk of kidney stones.

Article by Rajkumar Raikwar 


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