Sergei Korolev is considered the founder of practical astronautics

Typhus complicated the health of S. Korolyov, so the council of doctors insisted on trepanation of the skull and in January 1931 he was declared disabled.

On June 27, 1938, S. Korolyova was arrested. September 27 - closed court session. And the sentence: ten years of correctional labor camps with deprivation of rights for five years and confiscation of property. The place of punishment is Kolyma.

On July 27, 1944, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR decided to release S. Korolyov early from custody and acquit him. On August 15, he receives a passport.

In 1946, Korolyova was appointed chief designer of ballistic missiles and head of the research institute-88. Under his leadership, the first ballistic missiles in the Soviet Union were successively created: R-1 - a copy of the German A-4 / Fau-2, created on its basis significantly improved R-2, operational and tactical R-11 and its first modification in the USSR for submarines boats R-11FM, medium-range missile R-5, a modification of which R-5M became the world's first nuclear warhead.

Korolyov's most important design achievement was the world's first R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile, the first successful launch of which took place on August 27, 1957. R-7 became the basis for the creation of a whole family of launch vehicles, which provided a number of fundamental achievements in the field of unmanned and manned spaceflight.

On October 4, 1957, the first-ever artificial satellite of the Earth was launched.

On April 12, 1961, the first space flight was made on Yuri Gagarin's Vostok spacecraft.

On October 12, 1964, the first multi-seat ship of the Voskhod series with a crew on board was launched into orbit.

On March 18, 1965, for the first time in history, cosmonaut Leonov left the Voskhod-2 spacecraft into outer space.

Under the leadership of the chief designer of the Queen created the first spacecraft series "Moon", "Venus", "Mars", "Probe", some satellites of the series Space [ru], as well as the project of the spacecraft "Union".


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