Tests have begun on a vaccine for a type of cancer

Triple-negative breast cancer vaccine trials will begin in the United States. They will enroll 18 to 24 women with the disease in remission. A press release on the Cleveland Clinic website says the vaccine will be administered three times at two-week intervals, and the trial will end in September 2022.
Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer in 2020 in terms of new cases, with 2.26 million people diagnosed.
There were also 685,000 deaths from it in 2020. One of the most aggressive types of breast cancer is triple negative and does not respond well to existing treatments.
The reason is that the cells of this type of cancer do not have receptors for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and HER-2 (epidermal growth factor), which are targets for anti-cancer therapy.
Scientists were looking for molecular markers unique to triple-negative breast cancer cells and found that the protein alpha-lactalbumin, which is normally produced during lactation, is also present in triple-negative cancer cells.
U.S. physicians led by Vincent K. Tuohy of the Cleveland Clinic created a vaccine containing recombinant alpha-albumin along with an adjuvant that enhances the immune response.
    The vaccine was tested on mice: the drug suppressed the growth of an existing tumor and also prevented it from appearing from scratch.
Now the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized clinical trials of the vaccine in women with breast cancer. They will involve 18 to 24 patients who have been treated for triple-negative breast cancer and are in remission but are at high risk for recurrence of the disease. The vaccine will be administered to patients three times at two-week intervals. The research is expected to be completed in September 2022.
In the future, scientists also want to test the vaccine on healthy women at high risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer because of mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. It will be years before it is introduced into clinical practice - the drug must prove that it prevents the development of breast cancer as well as not having serious side effects.
Earlier, a colorectal cancer vaccine was tested on humans. Half of the participants developed antibodies or specific T-killers after vaccination.


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