the chinese are building a road

Road infrastructure plays an important role in the development and economic growth of any country.
The low technical level of roads causes a high level of the transport component in the cost of production. China has managed to overcome this problem in a very short period of time.Let's take a closer look at how roads are built in China. It's hard to imagine that just 50 years ago China was among the backward countries in terms of the number of roads with paved surfaces. In the 80s of the 20th century, the Chinese leadership realized that without a well-developed road network the country could not prosper. In this respect, the situation was more than sad. The bulk of all roads of the Celestial Empire were not of good quality: only 25% were paved with asphalt or concrete; 60% of the entire network required major repairs. At that time a program of expressway construction was adopted and quality standards for road paving were developed. The first expressway between Shanghai and Jiading, 18.5 kilometers long, was opened in 1988. This event was the beginning of the Chinese road miracle.But without funds and manpower, the implementation of the ideas seems little possible.
There is no problem with the labor force in China, and the work was financed from various sources: private and foreign borrowing, government sources at all levels,
state budget, provincial and municipal budgets,
public-private partnership in the form of concessions, issue of infrastructure bonds. The main sources of
of the invested funds to repay the loans are road tolls and revenues from the use of  
of land plots in the roadside. The cost of travel on high-speed highways  
is one of the highest in the world - on average about 6 rubles for each kilometer. At the beginning of the 21st century, China ranked 4th in the world in terms of total length of highways.
After this turning point, Chinese road construction was unstoppable,  
and as of 2020, China ranks third with a total length of  
roads more than 5 million kilometers.  In second place is India - 6 million kilometers,  
And in first place is the U.S. - 7.2 million kilometers. Russia is only on the 5th line - 1.5 million kilometers.  
By 2022, a highway network in China will connect all cities with a population of  
More than 200 000 people. It is planned that all residents of the eastern provinces will be able to get to
The plan is that all people living in the eastern provinces will be able to get to the expressway within half an hour, those in the central provinces within one hour, and those in the western provinces within two hours.  
provinces within two hours. In this way, the provinces will be economically integrated. The Chinese have not invented anything new. They just follow the technology carefully, without deviating  
not one step back from it. This is the key to the high quality of the roads, which serve for many years. But it's the speed - up to 750 meters per hour -  
is the speed of construction - up to 750 meters per hour - at a low cost. The low price  
is the result of cheap labor, quality materials and a well-thought-out organization. It is better to  
to do it well once than to do it again a thousand times. And contractors are interested in this in the first place,  
because payment for the work is made only after its completion. And the quality must meet  
the strictest standards. Repairs during the warranty period, which is from  
15 to 25 years, are at the contractor's expense. That's the secret of the high speed and good quality of Chinese roads. The contractor wants to get his money's worth back as quickly as possible. The many kilometers  
traffic jams are a real problem in all major cities. What about China, where the number of  
of its population exceeds 1.5 billion people. That's why the Chinese government has had to take unpopular  
measures to relieve traffic congestion in the big cities. Every year, China produces only 240,000  
new license plates, which are raffled off in lotteries or sold at auctions. The value of  
number at auctions can exceed the cost of the car itself and reach 1 million rubles. But having a car is very prestigious, and these difficulties do not stop the Chinese.  The entrance to Beijing for non-resident car owners requires a special permit. But locals can also 
enter the center of Beijing only four times a week.  This is determined by the last digit of the license plate:  
those with an even number can use the car on even-numbered days, and on odd-numbered  
days the car can be used by those with an odd number on the last digit of the license plate. In cities  
China does not have any free parking, and prices are quite high. Lorries and trucks can  
on the roads of major cities only at night. Enforcement of the rules is monitored around the clock  
The rules are monitored around the clock by numerous impartial cameras, which can be found literally  
everywhere. There are two types of roads in China: state roads, which are built with the help of loans,  
by banks to the Chinese government. Such roads are used as toll roads for 15 years,  
and after that time they become free. And commercial roads, which are built with the company's own  
or borrowed funds from companies. They can become free after 25 years.  Russia should definitely take a closer look at China's experience. It's more about  
payment for the work done by the contractor after it has been done. And not as  
Instead of the way things are now: funds are allocated and the result is accepted. Another  
another thing that affects the cost of the work. China is studying the experience of other countries in road construction and,  
Reducing the cost by 2-2.5 times, placing orders to contractors. In Russia, funds are allocated  
of funds on the basis of the experience of previous periods.  Road repairs are made in China at the expense of  
contractor, rather than from the budget, as it is practiced in Russia. Toll highways  
highways have already appeared in Russia, but the speed of their construction is still very slow. But,  
despite the discontent of motorists with the cost of the fare, such roads have a future. It remains  
One can only hope that the development of expressway construction in Russia will gain momentum. China  
has managed in a short period of time to achieve significant results in the development of its road  
network. This has been made possible thanks to the prudent policy of the Chinese government, including the introduction of  
of the corresponding laws and thoughtful financing of the industry.    


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