What to do in case of a burn? Types of burns, first aid, treatment

What is burn

A burn is a complex trauma resulting from high temperature, chemical, electrical, or radiation exposure to the body that destroys and / or damages the skin and underlying tissues.


Burns are one of the most widespread types of injuries that can occur both at home and at work, and represent not only a medical, but also a socio-economic problem.


Treatment of burn victims is a complex and continuous process aimed at restoring the skin.

Severity of burns

Currently, experts distinguish between several degrees of burns.

The first

I degree - these are superficial burns in which the epidermis and the upper layers of the skin itself (dermis) are affected.

The second

II degree - these are borderline burns, in which the skin is affected almost to the full depth, but many skin derivatives (hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands) remain unaffected.


III degree - these are deep burns, in which the skin is completely affected, often the lesion extends to the subcutaneous fat, even muscles and bones can be affected.


Grade IV is assigned in cases where there is necrosis and even charring of not only the skin, but also deeper tissues - muscles, tendons and even bones. The dead tissue is partially melted and rejected within a few weeks. Healing is very slow. Rough scars are often formed at the site of deep burns. In this case, cicatricial contractures are usually formed on the neck and in the area of ​​the joints.


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