1. Favorable position
This state was not always neutral. Previously, it also took part in wars. The last of them is the war of the Cambrai League, which lasted from 1508 to 1616. Further, the country was not interested in expanding its own borders. All efforts were devoted to development.
Over the next three hundred years, the state will face civil wars several times, and its mercenaries will participate in military conflicts taking place in different parts of Europe. As for the official position, Switzerland will be neutral. Moreover, its status will be accepted and recognized by absolutely all other European countries.
The state, up to 1798, was independent. But then Napoleon Bonaparte came and forcibly annexed him to the empire. His intentions were not destined to come true. In 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, Switzerland not only became independent again, but also received the status of a neutral state. However, there is no expiration date for this status. Swiss soldiers no longer fought as mercenaries in European countries.
By the way, the Swiss are very lucky. Their geographic location is very advantageous. They are located between Austria, France and Italy, which are sworn enemies and have always been. Switzerland has become a buffer. The countries of Europe made a promise under no circumstances to enter into a military conflict with it.
2. Why the contract was not violated by anyone for a long two hundred years
Switzerland, guided by the principle of its neutrality, during the First World War, in order to ensure the protection of its borders, mobilized 450,000 soldiers. But there were no people willing to seize the small state by sacrificing their own troops.
Switzerland is seventy percent mountains. It is not possible to get through such a terrain with a large army, especially if Swiss troops will fire at such a crowd of people. State politicians carried out diplomatic work, which made it possible to convince all those who took part in a global military conflict that Switzerland's neutrality was preserved. During the Second World War, the situation was somewhat different. Germany, together with France, really wanted to capture the mountainous country. France did not succeed, but Germany was able to obtain a favorable contract for itself.
At one time, O. Bircher, General of Switzerland, said that Germany could use only one regiment of tanks and the country would be captured. The Germans wanted to capture Switzerland in two or three days. Then, in order to protect the state borders from the enemy, 800,000 Swiss residents were mobilized.
In order not to lose its neutrality and remain an independent, self-sufficient country, Switzerland has promised Germany to provide a loan in the amount of 150 million Swiss marks for a long term. In addition, she pledged to open crossings in the Alps for transporting military cargo, not to allow refugees of Jewish origin into her territory, and also to send her doctors to the front to treat wounded soldiers of the German army.
In addition, several thousand Swiss citizens who are ethnic Germans volunteered to fight for Germany. Thus, Switzerland paid a ransom to Germany in the literal sense of the word. If you believe the rumors, then many Nazis stored their gold directly in Swiss banks.
The allies also benefited greatly from this country. Reconnaissance groups of Great Britain, the United States of America and even the USSR were located here. On the territory of Switzerland, secret negotiations were conducted between opponents, money obtained during the war was hidden. Valuables and gold that were left behind during the Second World War are still stored in Swiss banks.
Switzerland at the end of World War II continued to remain neutral. She did not take part in the Cold War. The state joined the UN not so long ago, only in 2002. Despite the fact that there are close ties between this state, NATO and the EU, it remains independent and does not enter anywhere.
Switzerland's policy is quite cunning, but this is what made it possible for the state to get into the list of the most developed countries. And the cities of Basel, Geneva and Zurich are included in the TOP-10 best in terms of quality of life. Today Switzerland is the headquarters of a huge number of international organizations, as well as a kind of world bank, in which many people from all over the world hold their own assets.