History of development of X-31 air-to-surface missile
Development of the X-31P began in 1975 because the military was not satisfied with the launch range and speed of the previous X-27PS anti-radar missile - the rocket was forced to launch in the range of Improved Hawk and Nike Hercules, in which case the calculation of the target could detect it and turn off the radar. Development of the X-31A in 1978. Figure 1 shows the air-to-surface missile X-31
Flight tests of the X-31P began in May 1982, the state joint tests (SJT) on the first phase were conducted from November 22, 1983. The second stage of the SIT conducted in parallel with the first August 28, 1984. In February 1986 held LKI modernized Kh-31P. At the end of March 1988 as part of the Mig-27M, were carried out a preliminary test of the modernized Kh-31P with a new navigation system, the tests were successfully completed. Tests of the Kh-31A missile: performed 86 flights and 8 launches of Kh-31A, the tests of the missile were successfully completed in 1989. Tests of the X-31 as part of the Su-30KN began in 2001.
Modifications of the air-to-surface missile X-31
The Kh-31P ("Article 77P") is the base version of antirarial missile equipped with modular passive radar homing heads PRGS-4VP (L-111), PRGS-5VP (L-112), or PRGS-6VP (L-113) developed by Avtomatika, which cover the entire frequency range of radars that are potential targets of this missile. Intended to destroy radar systems from long- and medium-range SAMs, as well as other ground and sea-based radars of different purposes. It was adopted for service in 1988. Kh-31PD - used a wide band passive GPS similar to that of Kh-58USHKE in 1.2-11 GHz band, increased launch range up to 250 km, at the expense of engine thrust control, enlarged its payload mass up to 110 kg, increased its launch mass up to 715 kg. Series production has been launched on September 7, 2012. KH-31PK is an upgrade of KH-31P missile by equipping it with a non-contact detonation sensor "Drop" and high efficiency warhead for the efficient destruction of radars, including those with antennas extended upwards (up to 15 m). Made in the dimensions of K-31P. With different variants of SSS. Kh-31A ("article 77A") is an anti-ship missile with active radar navigation system ARGS-31 (U505). Intended to destroy ships with a displacement of up to 4,500 tonnes. Accepted for service in 1989. Delivered for export to India. For the first time the missile was openly demonstrated in 1991 at the aviation exhibition in Dubai, UAE. MA-31 (M-31) - target missile based on Kh-31A. Without a booster, payload, and radio altimeter (according to other reports, with an American radio altimeter). Intended to simulate supersonic missiles during tests of air defense and artillery systems, and to practice skills to repel attacks of supersonic missiles by combat crews of air defense systems. It was developed on the basis of missile. X-31A and can fly on a low-altitude trajectory to simulate supersonic anti-ship missiles and high-altitude trajectory to simulate anti-radar missiles. It is supplied for export to the USA.