Education in the Russian Federation

Education in the Russian Federation, according to Article 2 of the Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation", is a single purposeful process of education and training, which is a socially important good, carried out in the interests of the person, society and the state; its main purpose is the intellectual, spiritual, creative, physical and professional development of the person.


The Education System of the Russian Federation.

The Russian education system began to take shape back in medieval Russia. Schools and colleges began to appear en masse in Novgorod and Kiev in the tenth century. The Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, which appeared in 1687, was the first institution of higher education. In 1804 a decree on education structured the educational system, after which it became similar to the modern one, besides two types of free schools were created. Later, the education system continued to develop and change.

The education system of the Russian Federation consists of the following components:

Educational standards.

Federal state requirements.

Educational programs.

Organizations involved in education (schools, universities, technical colleges).

Educators (teachers, professors).

Students (students, pupils) and their parents (as legal representatives of minor pupils and students).

Organizations involved in providing educational activities and quality assessment (e.g., RayonO).

Educational NGOs (e.g. cultural centres)


Types of education.

Pre-school education (nursery and kindergarten).

General education (school):

Elementary (1st-4th grade of school);

Basic education (fifth to ninth grade);

Secondary education (grade 10-11).

Professional education:

primary (vocational school, vocational lyceum);

Secondary (technical school, college);

higher education:

Bachelor's degree (I-IV year of higher education);

Specialist degree (V course);

magistracy (V course).


postgraduate studies;

Postgraduate: postgraduate education; doctorate.


The education system in Russia continues to improve and develop. The state monitors this development at three levels: federal, regional and municipal. Federal budget spending on education has also increased significantly: from 18.5 billion rubles in 1997 to 500 billion rubles in 2014.

In 2011, Russia ranked second among the world's countries in reading and comprehension among elementary school students. In most other studies of education, Russia ranks in the top 10 countries. Moscow State University ranks 25th among the best universities in the world. Finally, we can also note that Russia ranks first in the share of citizens with higher or specialized secondary education (53.5%), ahead of Canada, Japan, Israel and the United States.


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