What is a "new" and "supernova" star?

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Imagine that millions (fortunately for us) of light years away from Earth there are colossal processes going on, in terms of the amount of energy being spewed out. A classic situation: two stars (one of which has already cooled down a bit, and the other is still very hot), orbiting each other at a very close distance. There are many such star systems, and eventually the stars get so close to each other that a huge amount of hydrogen begins to "flow" from the hotter to the less hot one. Moreover, hydrogen atoms "fall" to the surface of the star with an acceleration 100,000 (!) times greater than they would fall to the surface of the Earth in a similar situation.

When the amount of hydrogen flowing over reaches a critical point, the thermonuclear reaction starts and the most powerful thermonuclear explosion takes place, resulting in a star in our sky, which is called a "new" star. After a while, the surface of the exploding star cools down and hydrogen begins to flow again from the companion star, creating the conditions for the next thermonuclear explosion. Astronomers observed the first such star as early as 500 B.C., and up to the seventeenth century there were 90 "new" stars. With the development of modern science and telescopes, began to record dozens of explosions per year. In the entire history of observation, the years when there were no explosions of a "new" star were only a few: 1908, 1911, 1923, 1965 and 1966.

Now, imagine the following energy scale process: the explosion of a "new" star of such a high power that it leads to a chain reaction and subsequent explosion of the whole star, not just the hydrogen flowing into it! The scale and power of this explosion are so great that not only the explosion affects considerable distances around itself, but also a "neutron" star or (if the mass of the original star was considerable) a "black hole" is formed in place of the former star! In this case, the explosion itself can be observed for 2-3 days, and then only its consequences are visible.

Such explosions are called "supernovae" and occur much less frequently than "new" explosions. The first "supernova explosion" was recorded by Chinese astronomers in 164 BC, and the second one only in 1604. The closest "supernova" explosion to Earth occurred at a distance of 168 thousand light years in 1987, and then even managed to register the corresponding neutrino flux.


"New" and "supernovae" stars are a natural process of the evolution of the universe, the evolution of stars. After all, such explosions are the source of heavy matter (which appears only in the bowels of the thermonuclear reaction and then disperses throughout the surrounding space, participating in the life of neighboring stars), as well as lead to significant changes in the gravitational interaction in space.


Thank you all for your attention to my publications, I hope you liked it, come again. 


Sincerely Eduard! 


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